The Ministry of Truth
The author has written a study that places George Orwell's 1984 in a variety of contexts: the author's life and times, the book's precursors in the science fiction genre, and its subsequent place in popular culture. Lynskey delves into how Orwell's harrowing Spanish Civil War experiences shaped his concern with political disinformation by exposing him to the deceptiveness of people he'd once regarded as allies against fascism: the Soviets and their Western apologists.

The Ministry of Truth Details

TitleThe Ministry of Truth
Author
ReleaseJun 4th, 2019
PublisherDoubleday Books
ISBN-139780385544054
Rating
GenreNonfiction, History, Politics, Biography, Writing, Books About Books, Literature, Philosophy

The Ministry of Truth Review

  • Nancy
    January 1, 1970
    In January 2017, Sarah Huckabee Sanders claimed that the crowd gathered to see President Trump take the oath of office was the "largest audience to ever witness an inauguration." When accused of misrepresentation Sanders said her statement was "alternative facts." Over the following four days, sales of George Orwell's novel 1984 rocketed to number one bestseller. Dorian Lynskey writes that more people know about 1984 than know 1984. It's catchphrases have entered the common language. Big Brother In January 2017, Sarah Huckabee Sanders claimed that the crowd gathered to see President Trump take the oath of office was the "largest audience to ever witness an inauguration." When accused of misrepresentation Sanders said her statement was "alternative facts." Over the following four days, sales of George Orwell's novel 1984 rocketed to number one bestseller. Dorian Lynskey writes that more people know about 1984 than know 1984. It's catchphrases have entered the common language. Big Brother. Doublespeak. Newspeak. In his book, Ministry of Truth, Lynskey examines the novel's origin, development, and influence in its time and its afterlife. Lynskey shows how Orwell's values and experiences shaped the novel and Orwell's purpose and intended message of the novel.The book is in two parts, first telling the story of Orwell's life and beliefs, his world, the history of utopian and dystopian novels. In the second part, Lynskey covers the novel's influences, interpretations, and uses since its publication.Since January 2017, dystopian novels have topped the best-seller lists and newly published ones find a ready audience. 1984 was not meant to be prophetic, but a warning based on Orwell's experience. "What you're seeing and what you're reading is not what's happening," Trump proclaimed in a July 2018 speech, echoing the 1984 lines, "The party told you to reject the evidence of your eyes and ears. It was their final, most essential command." Orwell feared that objective truth "is fading out of the world." Seventy years later, we still share that fear.Upon its publication, some thought it was a book that would only speak to one generation. Sadly, it has proven resiliently evergreen. I received a free ebook from the publisher through NetGalley in exchange for a fair and unbiased review."The moral to be drawn from this dangerous nightmare situation is a simple one," [Orwell] explained in a press statement after the book came out. "Don't let it happen. It depends on you." quoted in The Ministry of Truth by Dorian Lynskey
    more
  • Susan
    January 1, 1970
    I love books about books and so this, the biography of George Orwell’s most famous novel, “1984,” was a must read for me. This is split into two main sections; the first dealing with Orwell’s writing of the novel and the second part looking at the impact of the book.If you are looking for a biography of George Orwell, this is not really the book for you. Although it covers part of his life, which mainly deals with the period where he was either considering writing, or actually working on, “1984, I love books about books and so this, the biography of George Orwell’s most famous novel, “1984,” was a must read for me. This is split into two main sections; the first dealing with Orwell’s writing of the novel and the second part looking at the impact of the book.If you are looking for a biography of George Orwell, this is not really the book for you. Although it covers part of his life, which mainly deals with the period where he was either considering writing, or actually working on, “1984,” this is not a book about his entire life. Rather it looks on influences on the novel, including Orwell’s time in Spain, the political situation leading up to the Second World War, utopias and dystopian novels that were popular at the time, the work of H.G. Wells, Orwell’s time at the BBC (including working with Guy Burgess), London during, and after, the war and other such events. Some of this is very funny – including a rather disastrous dinner party with H.G. Wells, other parts are insightful, such as Orwell’s thoughts on Dickens – you can only create if you care – some touching, such as Orwell’s refusal to accept his life was almost over, when he was terribly ill, and others really give a sense of those turbulent, political times. Orwell’s time in Spain allowed him to feel the paranoia and fear that comes with a totalitarian state, while he was obviously heavily influences by Stalin’s regime of obliterating free speech, rewriting history and forced confessions; even if such thoughts were not always welcomed by those who were concerned that books like, “Animal Farm,” would not be welcomed by our Allies…Looking at whether, “1984” is still relevant, after being published in 1949 is almost a pointless question. The author shows how, throughout history, the book constantly comes back into favour during turbulent times. After Trump’s inauguration, when the press questioned his office claiming the largest crowd ever, which was obviously untrue, they were blithely informed that this was, “alternative facts.” Sales of “1984,” rocketed, as it had before and, undoubtedly, will again. Phrases from the book have come into common use – from Room 101, Big Brother, The Ministry of Truth and even the term, ‘Orwellian.’ Sometimes, you feel the author has really discovered every single reference to the novel is every television show, song, slogan and film. However, from ‘The Prisoner ,’ to David Bowie, these are covered in detail. I think, overall, I preferred the beginning of this book and the writing of the novel itself, but this is also interesting. It was also fascinating to learn what people imagined was warned against in the novel, and how they interpreted it. For example, the book is often seen as a warning about computers, and social media, when actually Orwell’s vision of a screen that watched you, came from televisions – which he never owned and which was taken off air during the war years anyway. Indeed, his understanding of technology was, in Lynskey’s words, rudimentary at best. Overall, though, this is a wonderful read and very well written. The research is thorough and comprehensive – even exhausting at times. Yet, Dorian Lynskey manages to keep this readable and constantly unearths interesting nuggets of information, which will make you wish to read the novel again – or, if you have not read it before – discover Orwell’s world for yourself.
    more
  • Chrissie
    January 1, 1970
    Decided very quickly this was not a book for me. I did not complete it. Tried it in June 2019.I am not a fan of either dystopian or utopian novels! There is a lot of name dropping of authors and titles that do not interest me. I wanted it to be about Orwell, but it isn't. The superficial way it covered his time in Spain, put me off immediately. Never does it say clearly how Orwell's experiences in the Spanish Civil War directly influenced his writing.I find the writing long-winded. It seems to m Decided very quickly this was not a book for me. I did not complete it. Tried it in June 2019.I am not a fan of either dystopian or utopian novels! There is a lot of name dropping of authors and titles that do not interest me. I wanted it to be about Orwell, but it isn't. The superficial way it covered his time in Spain, put me off immediately. Never does it say clearly how Orwell's experiences in the Spanish Civil War directly influenced his writing.I find the writing long-winded. It seems to me the book is more about other authors than it is about Orwell. Neither does it help that the narration by Andrew Wincott, which although clear, is over-dramatized.
    more
  • Peter Mcloughlin
    January 1, 1970
    1984 is huge these days of rising authoritarianism and surveillance states undreamt of in Orwell's work. How does this short novel written by a dying man on the island of Jura in 1948 become such a touchstone for 70 years following its publication? This book documents Orwell's life experience and reading sources that went into this timely work. From his experience of British working class that pulled him towards socialism and his experience in Spain and the betrayal of its cause by the Soviets f 1984 is huge these days of rising authoritarianism and surveillance states undreamt of in Orwell's work. How does this short novel written by a dying man on the island of Jura in 1948 become such a touchstone for 70 years following its publication? This book documents Orwell's life experience and reading sources that went into this timely work. From his experience of British working class that pulled him towards socialism and his experience in Spain and the betrayal of its cause by the Soviets for realpolitik reasons and the fanaticism and cynicism of ideologues. 1984 was made by this hard-won life history. The book then talks about the books afterlife in politics in the seventy years since. Including misunderstandings and obfuscation by various figures. And of course the exploding popularity of this authoritarian moment. A nice supplement to the critical 1984a video on 1984https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQxOK...
    more
  • Ryan Denson
    January 1, 1970
    Dorian Lynskey’s The Ministry of Truth brilliantly seeks to uncover what forces shaped the novel 1984, both in terms of Orwell’s personal experiences and larger cultural elements, as well as survey how the novel has remained so popular in the seven decades since its publication. The first part of the book could be described as a mixture of biography, history, and literary history. Lynskey does diligent work in piecing together the events and experiences of Orwell’s life that had a profound impac Dorian Lynskey’s The Ministry of Truth brilliantly seeks to uncover what forces shaped the novel 1984, both in terms of Orwell’s personal experiences and larger cultural elements, as well as survey how the novel has remained so popular in the seven decades since its publication. The first part of the book could be described as a mixture of biography, history, and literary history. Lynskey does diligent work in piecing together the events and experiences of Orwell’s life that had a profound impact on his ideas and writing, such as his early experiences with colonialism in Burma, and his time in Spain fighting against fascists. This is interwoven alongside the historical events of the rise of fascism, the two world wars, and the Russian Revolution, events and political phenomena that he was keenly fascinated by and was a voracious reader of all the reports coming out of these developments. Lastly, his personal experiences and the political chaos is set against the backdrop of the late 19th/early 20th century fascination with utopian literature and optimism that science would supposedly lead to unbounded progress. Most notably, the voluminous body of works written by H. G. Wells dominated such discussions over how to craft an ideal society. While Orwell was certainly not the first to create an anti-utopian (or dystopian as it more commonly known today), his desire to create an inversion of such a popular genre would be combined with his political ideas and historical trends. The second part deals largely with the aftermath of the novel. It sparked controversy and debate from day one of publication as many misinterpreted Orwell’s message or sought to paint it primarily as a critique of their own political opponents. This situation was further complication by Orwell’s own death, less than a year after its publication, leading to only more turmoil over who could claim Orwell’s message for their own. This part vividly shows the surge in popularity of both 1984, as many of its terms and ideas became implanted in our culture, and the rise of the dystopian genre, with many imitating or crafting altered versions of such Orwellian nightmares. People began to draw parallels between their own times and the world of 1984. David Bowie, for instance, was known to be an avid fan of the book and imbedded references to 1984 throughout his music. One chapter details the extremely high interest in the book during the 1984, ironic considering Orwell only alter the title to the year as a late change. Lastly, a chapter focuses on 1984 in the 21st century, where recent events, notably the 2016 American presidential election have caused a surge in sales of the book and interest in its themes of a post-truth world. Many have also seen the parallels in new surveillance technology, once an idea that 1984’s early readers dismissed as an outlandish possibility.Lynskey’s book is a magnificent work for anyone who has enjoyed reading 1984. You don’t need an in-depth knowledge of the novel to understand this book, but that certainly will help as avid fans of 1984 will pick up the many connections, like Orwell’s extreme dislike of rats that he developed when fighting in Spain. The book is also a thought provoking one as readers will no doubt (unfortunately) be able to relate many ideas to current day situations. Today is the 70th anniversary of the publication of 1984 (published June 8th 1949), and even after so long the novel’s themes have continued to fascinate and terrify so many.
    more
  • Richard Luck
    January 1, 1970
    I've a thousand and one things I'd like to say about The Ministry Of Truth. However, for the time being, I'll limit myself to this - if I had written this book, I think I would've died of pride.
  • Michelle Kidwell
    January 1, 1970
    The Ministry of TruthThe Biography of George Orwell's 1984by Dorian LynskeyDoubleday BooksDoubledayBiographies & Memoirs , Nonfiction (Adult)Pub Date 04 Jun 2019I am reviewing a copy of The Ministry of Truth through Doubleday and Netgalley:When George Orwell’s book 1984 was published in the United Kingdom on June 8 1949, a critic couldn’t help but wonder how such a timely book could exert the same power over generations to come.Readers of the First edition of 1984 knew of only a fraction of The Ministry of TruthThe Biography of George Orwell's 1984by Dorian LynskeyDoubleday BooksDoubledayBiographies & Memoirs , Nonfiction (Adult)Pub Date 04 Jun 2019I am reviewing a copy of The Ministry of Truth through Doubleday and Netgalley:When George Orwell’s book 1984 was published in the United Kingdom on June 8 1949, a critic couldn’t help but wonder how such a timely book could exert the same power over generations to come.Readers of the First edition of 1984 knew of only a fraction of George Orwell writings we know now, because it was 1984 that would launch him into popularity.We are reminded by the author of Ministry of Truth that 1984 was a book designed to wake you up!George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in India on June.25.1903, His Mother Ida brought him to England the following year was a very intelligent woman who was half French who mixed with Suffragettes and Fabians. His Father Richard Blair was a mid ranking civil servant for the British’s imperial government opium department and didn’t re-enter his son’s life until 1912 and then he appeared as the elderly man who was always saying don’t. In 1933 Orwell wrote and published his first book a memoir called Down and Out in Paris and London.Ministry of Truth reminds us just what power George Orwell’s 1984 has over it’s readers, going into how the story was written even how it would impact both literature and society.I give Ministry of Truth five out of five stars!Happy Reading!
    more
  • Joe O'Donnell
    January 1, 1970
    Can there be any novelist or journalist from the last century who has proved more enduringly influential than George Orwell? And has any single novel had anywhere the same influence as his dystopian masterpiece, “Nineteen Eighty-Four”? As Dorian Lynskey writes in “The Ministry of Truth”, his masterful biography of “Nineteen Eighty-Four”, it “remains the book we turn to when truth is mutilated, language is distorted, power is abused, and we want to know how bad things can get”; a warning from his Can there be any novelist or journalist from the last century who has proved more enduringly influential than George Orwell? And has any single novel had anywhere the same influence as his dystopian masterpiece, “Nineteen Eighty-Four”? As Dorian Lynskey writes in “The Ministry of Truth”, his masterful biography of “Nineteen Eighty-Four”, it “remains the book we turn to when truth is mutilated, language is distorted, power is abused, and we want to know how bad things can get”; a warning from history that – sadly – never seems to lose its relevance. And, in “The Ministry of Truth”, it finally has a biography – and in Dorian Lynskey a biographer – worthy of its reputation, that so eruditely maps its origins and ever-lasting influence. Firstly, readers should be aware that “The Ministry of Truth” is not a straight-ahead biography of George Orwell’s life (if that is what you’re looking for, Christopher Hitchens, Gordon Bowker, and Robert Colls have all produced terrific biographies of Orwell since the turn of the century). Instead, Dorian Lynskey bifurcated “The Ministry of Truth” into two halves: the first analysing the literary and political influences baring down on George Orwell during the production of “Nineteen Eighty-Four”; the second half discussing the massive cultural influence it has had in the seventy years since its publication and how “Orwell’s book continues to define our nightmares”. “The Ministry of Truth” is superb at uncovering the influences and building blocks that made “Nineteen Eighty-Four”, and Lynskey expertly traces the genealogy of Orwell’s last novel, from the utopian sci-fi visions of H.G. Wells, on to the more dystopian work of Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World”, through to Arthur Koestler’s anti-totalitarian masterpiece “Darkness at Noon”. Lynskey also unearths the roots of Orwell’s pessimism about the possibility of objective truth in bureaucratic societies in the writer’s personal life, through his persecution at the hands of Stalinist forces during the Spanish Civil War, or his wartime work at the BBC producing pro-allied propaganda (“for Orwell, working for a large bureaucracy in wartime was an invaluable education in the machinery of the state”).But it is during the latter half of the book, when Dorian Lynskey uncovers the enormous influence that “Nineteen Eighty-Four” has had - not just on contemporary politics but also on popular culture – that “The Ministry of Truth” is really at its most impressive. It is this section, that really plays to Lynskey’s background as one of the foremost music writers of his generation, which shows the inspiration that “Nineteen Eighty Four” has been to everything from The Lego Movie to the Judge Dread ‘2000AD’ comics, from ‘A Clockwork Orange’ and the 1960s sci-fi series ‘The Prisoner’ on to the TV adaption of Margaret Atwood’s ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ during the 2010s. There are absolutely fascinating tangents on David Bowie’s failed attempt to written an opera based on “Nineteen Eighty Four” (thwarted by Orwell’s flinty widow, Sonia) and how Orwell’s anti-totalitarian, anti-bureaucracy message was appropriated by advertisers like Apple (hi-jacked, as Lynskey says, as a form of “anti-corporate marketing, twisting Orwell’s fable into an upbeat fable for the information age”). And there is a terrific chapter on how “Nineteen Eighty Four” was covered and commemorated in the year 1984 itself – which saw what amounted to the creation of an ‘Orwell Industry’ - and when it appeared that “Orwell had graduated from literary hero to ubiquitous celebrity, while “Nineteen Eighty Four” had mutated from a novel into a meme”.One of the threads running throughout “The Ministry of Truth” is how “Nineteen Eighty Four” has throughout the last seventy years, so often been embraced and appropriated by everyone from the neoconservative right, the anti-Stalinist left, classical libertarians, and on to more modern-day Infowars-addled conspiracy theorists. Despite Orwell’s best intentions and his lifelong commitment to Democratic Socialism), after his death “Nineteen Eighty Four” was twisted into “an ideological superweapon”. For decades after its publication, it would be employed as a cudgel by the Cold War-Right against all strands of the Left. Orwell’s early death meant his life overlapped with the public life of “Nineteen Eighty Four” for a mere 227 days. Lynskey is insistent that the novel does not, despite frequent misconceptions, represent Orwell’s repudiation of Socialism. Nonetheless, he acknowledges that “even before (the book) was out, people seemed determined to understand it”).Dorian Lynskey isn’t a starry-eyed sycophant of Orwell’s and is unafraid to take to task the “wintry conscience of his generation”, whether for being unduly pessimistic or, alternatively, for having a wholly unrealistic view of ‘the proles’ as the potential saviours of liberty and freedom (“the least persuasive element of “Nineteen Eighty Four”). Lynskey also warns against glib assessments of “Nineteen Eighty-Four’s” nightmarish atmosphere as being the product of Orwell’s gloomy temperament or terminal illness (six months after the novel was published, he succumbed to the tuberculosis that wracked him during its writing). “Nineteen Eighty Four” is seventy years old this month, and this remarkable biography captures just why it remains every bit as relevant as when it was first published. “The Ministry of Truth” is an absolutely essential read about Orwell’s ultimate warning from history, about his siren call about the pervasiveness of intrusive technology – particularly when it is combined with unaccountable bureaucracy and authoritarian politics. “The Ministry of Truth” makes overt (although never in a heavy-handed manner) how it is just a hop, skip and a jump from Big Brother, Newspeak, and the Two Minute’s Hate, to Russian troll farms, the Chinese Government’s Social Credit system, and “Alternative Facts”. This is a chilling forewarning about where our human civilisation might be going if we’re not extremely careful, extremely lucky or are not prepared to fight for it.
    more
  • Kristine
    January 1, 1970
    The Ministry of Truth by Dorian Lynskey is a free NetGalley ebook that I read in early June.1984 as a standby standard when reality becomes distorted by current events with its terms and phrases entering the common lexicon and people rediscovering its relevance all the time. This book, on the other hand, mainly wants to look at Orwell’s backstory before and while he wrote it, as well as go further into 1984 inspiring works of media & politik while citing specific examples and artists. Orwell The Ministry of Truth by Dorian Lynskey is a free NetGalley ebook that I read in early June.1984 as a standby standard when reality becomes distorted by current events with its terms and phrases entering the common lexicon and people rediscovering its relevance all the time. This book, on the other hand, mainly wants to look at Orwell’s backstory before and while he wrote it, as well as go further into 1984 inspiring works of media & politik while citing specific examples and artists. Orwell had clearly not been at ease in the time he lived, since he was deeply troubled by the Spanish Civil War, so he goes to fight in it for 6 months, only to be shot in the throat while standing to smoke a cigarette. When he returns to Europe, he's diagnosed with TB, is restricted from fighting in WWII, is inspired by other concurrent authors’ work to write an anti-utopia in a dire hyper-regimented future, and works for the BBC (believed strongly to be his inspiration for the a Ministry of Truth). This biography studded with and guided by direct quotes, yet it's quite a lot like Lynskey is presenting elaborate visuals and dioramas that illustrate Orwell & 1984, but then piping in and elevating from up behind them to point out something crucial in their own particularly dynamic, yet distracted narrative voice.
    more
  • Forest Ormes
    January 1, 1970
    Dorian Lynskey’s, The Ministry of Truth: A Biography of George Orwell’s 1984, while covering aspects of George Orwell’s (Eric Blair) life, documents the influences of utopian and dystopian literature upon Orwell in his creation of 1984. Influences include the more obvious, Looking Backward (1888) by Edward Bellamy, Huxley’s, Brave New World (1932), but also Zamyatin’s, We (1924). Orwell’s volunteer fighting with POUM, during the Spanish Civil War, hugely affected Orwell’s thinking on the double- Dorian Lynskey’s, The Ministry of Truth: A Biography of George Orwell’s 1984, while covering aspects of George Orwell’s (Eric Blair) life, documents the influences of utopian and dystopian literature upon Orwell in his creation of 1984. Influences include the more obvious, Looking Backward (1888) by Edward Bellamy, Huxley’s, Brave New World (1932), but also Zamyatin’s, We (1924). Orwell’s volunteer fighting with POUM, during the Spanish Civil War, hugely affected Orwell’s thinking on the double-think of totalitarianism. Left-wing journalists at the time accepted the lie of spies in the loyalist government, finding it convenient in their support of Stalin. Orwell refused to do so, and declared this refusal in, Homage to Catalonia. He became an heretic among the left as a result. Later, Lynskey’s addresses in depth the myth that a dying Orwell wrote, 1984, in despair. “Nothing in Orwell’s work,” writes Lynskey, “supports a diagnosis of despair.” After Orwell’s death, 1984 itself becomes the subject of biography. Both the left and the right took up the book for their cause. In response by the right's attempt to coopt him, Orwell declared that he was a socialist and would work to change socialism and the left from within. That did not stop the right from trying to use him for their purposes, nor the left from targeting him posthumously with the false claim that, had he lived, Orwell would have moved to the right. In closing, Lynskey says that 1984 was meant to be a warning, not a prediction. Orwell, Lynskey emphasizes, emphasized the state, not the individual. Today’s individuals are threatened, not by the state, but by the bubbles and echo chambers they inhabit in social media. No torture or threats needed. Does Lysneky relate 1984 to the current political situation of Donald Trump. Absolutely. Fake news. Amnesia to history. Disregard of facts all get mentioned as the book closes. Understandably, Lynskey focuses on the individuals currently holding power, along with the misguided mass of people who support them. In closing, Lysneky fails to mention the threat to truth from the left – a disappointment to this writer, himself a progressive -- where shame is proving a greater threat to truth than the interrogators serving Big Brother. In the middle of the current left-right toxicity, Orwell’s, 1984, stands as a refreshing antidote.
    more
  • Christopher
    January 1, 1970
    This "biography" is split into two parts. The first is a bio of George Orwell and a history of the times that lead to the creation of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The author is an excellent storyteller and this part was quite engaging. Those interested in world history/intellectual history from WWI to the decade following WWII will enjoy this. The one area I would have liked to see more coverage was Orwell's Animal Farm. It was in the book, but as it was a precursor to Nineteen Eighty-Four, I would hav This "biography" is split into two parts. The first is a bio of George Orwell and a history of the times that lead to the creation of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The author is an excellent storyteller and this part was quite engaging. Those interested in world history/intellectual history from WWI to the decade following WWII will enjoy this. The one area I would have liked to see more coverage was Orwell's Animal Farm. It was in the book, but as it was a precursor to Nineteen Eighty-Four, I would have liked more depth. The second part of the book is a look at the legacy of Orwell and his most famous book. It was a little too much pop culture for me. I would have liked more emphasis on how Orwell's warnings apply to the manipulative tools of today's elites: specifically politicians, journalists, special-interest advocates, celebrities, and the like. These tools, as Orwell told us, is employed by both sides of the aisle. While the author rightly highlighted the right-wing extremes of the Nixon/Reagan/BushII/Trump era. There was barely a whisper of the equally relevant and chilling left-wing excesses of the Kennedy/Johnson/Clinton/Obama era. What would Orwell say about this omission? Read this important, timely book and find out!
    more
  • Neanderthal
    January 1, 1970
    1984 had me when “the clocks were striking thirteen.” The Ministry of Truth: the Biography of George Orwell’s 1984 added even more to my appreciation of the book by looking at it from all possible angles: “alternative facts,” influences from Orwell’s life, including fighting in the Spanish Civil War, working for the BBC during World War II, earlier and later utopias and dystopias, his other writings and the ongoing legacy of the novel.(I received pre-publication access thanks to NetGalley.)
    more
  • Jeri
    January 1, 1970
    A good book, and definitely worth reading. For me, it just got bogged down in the minutiae of the many dystopian precursors and imitators. Lynskey's best moments come when he shows why most of misread (to some extent) this complex text, and in describing its appropriation for political purposes across the left/right spectrum.
    more
Write a review